##### Usual Year Group Learning: Year R+

Children first start to encounter concrete and pictorial fractions in Reception, learning to recognise a half, third and quarter. By Year 2, children will be finding 1/2 of a number and encounter their first non-unit fraction, 3/4. During Year 3 children start to develop fluency in fractions, recognising a range of pictorial and written unit and non-unit fractions (see essential knowledge), comparing and ordering unit fractions, and adding those with the same denominator.

Typically, children find working with fractions quite hard and need lots of concrete and visual representations to support their learning. There’s some fantastic resources out there to help your child get to grips with fractions, including tiles and circles, cards and equivalency towers. These can be used to develop hands on knowledge of how fractions can fit together and how they form part of a whole.

##### Essential Knowledge

- Fractions represent equal parts of a whole
- The denominator (bottom) expresses how many parts in a whole
- The numerator (top) expresses how many parts you have
- A unit fraction has one part, ie, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5
- A non-unit fraction has more than one part, ie, 2/3, 3/4, 4/5
- A whole fraction has all the parts needed to make a whole, ie, 2/2, 3/3, 4/4

##### What to Ask Your Child

- What is half of 16?
- How many sixths make a whole?
- If you have 2/5 and I have 1/5, how many fifths do we have altogether?
- How many quarters make a half?